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  • pushnew item place &key key test test-notnew-place-value

Arguments and Values


pushnew tests whether item is the same as any existing element of the list stored in place. If item is not, it is prepended to the list, and the new list is stored in place.

pushnew returns the new list that is stored in place.

Whether or not item is already a member of the list that is in place is determined by comparisons using :test or :test-not. The first argument to the :test or :test-not function is item; the second argument is an element of the list in place as returned by the :key function (if supplied).

If :key is supplied, it is used to extract the part to be tested from both item and the list element, as for adjoin.

The argument to the :key function is an element of the list stored in place. The :key function typically returns part part of the element of the list. If :key is not supplied or nil, the list element is used.

For information about the evaluation of subforms of place, \seesection\GenRefSubFormEval.

It is implementation-dependent whether or not pushnew actually executes the storing form for its place in the situation where the item is already a member of the list held by place.


(defparameter *x* '(a (b c) d))


(pushnew 5 (cadr *x*))

(5 B C)


(A (5 B C) D)

(pushnew 'b (cadr *x*))

(5 B C)


(A (5 B C) D)

(defparameter *list* '((1) (1 2) (1 2 3)))


(pushnew '(2) *list*)

((2) (1) (1 2) (1 2 3))

(pushnew '(1) *list*)

((1) (2) (1) (1 2) (1 2 3))

(pushnew '(1) *list* :test #'equal)

((1) (2) (1) (1 2) (1 2 3))

(pushnew '(1) *list* :key #'car)

((1) (2) (1) (1 2) (1 2 3))

Side Effects

The contents of place may be modified.

Affected By


Exceptional Situations


See Also

push, adjoin, {\secref\GeneralizedReference}

Example Implementation

To be done.

The effect of

(pushnew item place :test p)

is roughly equivalent to

(setf place (adjoin item place :test p))

except that the subforms of place are evaluated only once, and item is evaluated before place.