# Function EVAL

### Syntax

• eval formresult`*`

### Description

Evaluates form in the current dynamic environment and the null lexical environment.

eval is a user interface to the evaluator.

The evaluator expands macro calls as if through the use of macroexpand-1.

Constants appearing in code processed by eval are not copied nor coalesced. The code resulting from the execution of eval references objects that are eql to the corresponding objects in the source code.

### Examples

```
(defparameter *form* '(1+ a))

→
*FORM*

(defparameter *a* 999)

→
*A*

(eval form)

→
1000

(eval 'form)

→
(1+ A)

(let ((a '(this would break if eval used local value)))
(eval form))

→
1000

```

None.

### Exceptional Situations

None.

Function MACROEXPAND-1, {\secref\EvaluationModel}

### Notes

To obtain the current dynamic value of a symbol, use of symbol-value is equivalent (and usually preferable) to use of eval.

Note that an eval form involves two levels of evaluation for its argument. First, form is evaluated by the normal argument evaluation mechanism as would occur with any call. The object that results from this normal argument evaluation becomes the value of the form parameter, and is then evaluated as part of the eval form. For example:

```
(eval (list 'cdr (car '((quote (a . b)) c))))

→
B

```

The argument form

```
(list 'cdr (car '((quote (a . b)) c)))

```

is evaluated in the usual way to produce the argument

```
(cdr (quote (a . b)))

```

eval then evaluates its argument,

```
(cdr (quote (a . b)))

```

to produce `b`. Since a single evaluation already occurs for any argument form in any function form, eval is sometimes said to perform "an extra level of evaluation."

\issue{QUOTE-SEMANTICS:NO-COPYING} \issue{EVALHOOK-STEP-CONFUSION:X3J13-NOV-89} \issue{EVALHOOK-STEP-CONFUSION:FIX}