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  • declare declaration-specifier*



A declare expression, sometimes called a declaration, can occur only at the beginning of the bodies of certain forms; that is, it may be preceded only by other declare expressions, or by a documentation string if the context permits.

A declare expression can occur in a lambda expression or in any of the forms listed below.

A declare expression can only occur where specified by the syntax of these forms.

The consequences of attempting to evaluate a declare expression are undefined. In situations where such expressions can appear, explicit checks are made for their presence and they are never actually evaluated; it is for this reason that they are called "declare expressions" rather than "declare forms."

macro formMacro forms cannot expand into declarations; declare expressions must appear as actual subexpressions of the form to which they refer.

The list below shows a list of declaration identifiers that can be used with declare.

An implementation is free to support other (implementation-defined) declaration identifiers as well.


(defun nonsense (k x z) (foo z x) ; first call to foo (let ((j (foo k x)) ; second call to foo (x (* k k))) (declare (inline foo) (special x z)) (foo x j z)))


In this example, the inline declaration applies only to the third call to foo, but not to the first or second ones. The special declaration of x causes let to make a dynamic binding for x, and causes the reference to x in the body of let to be a dynamic reference. The reference to x in the second call to foo is a local reference to the second parameter of nonsense. The reference to x in the first call to foo is a local reference, not a special one. The special declaration of z causes the reference to z in the third call to foo to be a dynamic reference; it does not refer to the parameter to nonsense named z, because that parameter binding has not been declared to be special. (The special declaration of z does not appear in the body of defun, but in an inner form, and therefore does not affect the binding of the parameter.)

Affected By


Exceptional Situations

The consequences of trying to use a declare expression as a form to be evaluated are undefined.

See Also