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  • with-package-iterator (name package-list-form &rest symbol-types) declaration* form*result*

Arguments and Values


Within the lexical scope of the body forms, the name is defined via macrolet such that successive invocations of (name) will return the symbols, one by one, from the packages in package-list.

It is unspecified whether symbols inherited from multiple packages are returned more than once. The order of symbols returned does not necessarily reflect the order of packages in package-list. When package-list has more than one element, it is unspecified whether duplicate symbols are returned once or more than once.

symbol-types controls which symbols that are accessible in a package are returned as follows:


The symbols that are present in the package, but that are not exported.


The symbols that are present in the package and are exported.


The symbols that are exported by used packages and that are not shadowed.

When more than one argument is supplied for symbol-types, a symbol is returned if its accessibility matches any one of the symbol-types supplied. Implementations may extend this syntax by recognizing additional symbol accessibility types.

An invocation of (name) returns four values as follows:

  • 1. A flag that indicates whether a symbol is returned (true means that a symbol is returned).
  • 2. A symbol that is accessible in one the indicated packages.
  • 3. The accessibility type for that symbol; i.e. one of the symbols :internal, :external, or :inherited.
  • 4. The package from which the symbol was obtained. The package is one of the packages present or named in package-list.

After all symbols have been returned by successive invocations of (//name//), then only one value is returned, namely nil.

The meaning of the second, third, and fourth values is that the returned symbol is accessible in the returned package in the way indicated by the second return value as follows:


Means present and not exported.


Means present and exported.


Means not present (thus not shadowed) but inherited from some used package.

It is unspecified what happens if any of the implicit interior state of an iteration is returned outside the dynamic extent of the with-package-iterator form such as by returning some closure over the invocation form.

Any number of invocations of with-package-iterator can be nested, and the body of the innermost one can invoke all of the locally established macros, provided all those macros have distinct names.


The following function should return t on any package, and signal an error if the usage of with-package-iterator does not agree with the corresponding usage of do-symbols.

(defun test-package-iterator (package) (unless (packagep package) (setf package (find-package package))) (let ((all-entries '()) (generated-entries '())) (do-symbols (x package) (multiple-value-bind (symbol accessibility) (find-symbol (symbol-name x) package) (push (list symbol accessibility) all-entries))) (with-package-iterator (generator-fn package :internal :external :inherited) (loop (multiple-value-bind (more? symbol accessibility pkg) (generator-fn) (unless more? (return)) (let ((l (multiple-value-list (find-symbol (symbol-name symbol) package)))) (unless (equal l (list symbol accessibility)) (error "Symbol ~S not found as ~S in package ~A [~S]" symbol accessibility (package-name package) l)) (push l generated-entries))))) (unless (and (subsetp all-entries generated-entries :test #'equal) (subsetp generated-entries all-entries :test #'equal)) (error "Generated entries and Do-Symbols entries don't correspond")) t))


The following function prints out every present symbol (possibly more than once):

(defun print-all-symbols () (with-package-iterator (next-symbol (list-all-packages) :internal :external) (loop (multiple-value-bind (more? symbol) (next-symbol) (if more? (print symbol) (return))))))


Side Effects


Affected By


Exceptional Situations

with-package-iterator signals an error of type program-error if no symbol-types are supplied or if a symbol-type is not recognized by the implementation is supplied.

The consequences are undefined if the local function named name established by with-package-iterator is called after it has returned false as its primary value.

See Also

  • {\secref\TraversalRules}