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Glossary

Each entry in this glossary has the following parts:

  • the term being defined, set in boldface.
  • the part or parts of speech, set in italics. If a term can be used as several parts of speech, there is a separate definition for each part of speech.
  • one or more definitions, organized as follows:
    • an optional number, present if there are several definitions. Lowercase letters might also be used in cases where subdefinitions of a numbered definition are necessary.
    • an optional part of speech, set in italics, present if the term is one of several parts of speech.
    • an optional discipline, set in italics, present if the term has a standard definition being repeated. For example, "Math."
    • an optional context, present if this definition is meaningful only in that context. For example, "(of a symbol)".
    • the definition.
    • an optional example sentence. For example, "This is an example of an example."
    • optional cross references.

In addition, some terms have idiomatic usage in the Common Lisp community which is not shared by other communities, or which is not technically correct. Definitions labeled "Idiom." represent such idiomatic usage; these definitions are sometimes followed by an explanatory note.

Words in this font are words with entries in the glossary. Words in example sentences do not follow this convention.

When an ambiguity arises, the longest matching substring has precedence. For example, "complex float" refers to a single glossary entry for "complex float" rather than the combined meaning of the glossary terms "complex" and "float."

Subscript notation, as in "somethingn" means that the n-th definition of "Glossary" is intended. This notation is used only in situations where the context might be insufficient to disambiguate.

The following are abbreviations used in the glossary:

Abbreviation Meaning
adj. adjective
adv. adverb
ANSI compatible with one or more ANSI standards
Comp. computers
Idiom. idiomatic
IEEE compatible with one or more IEEE standards
ISO compatible with one or more ISO standards
Math. mathematics
Trad. traditional
n. noun
v. verb
v.t. transitive verb

Non-alphabetic

()

n.

  • an alternative notation for writing the symbol nil, used to emphasize the use of nil as an empty list.

A

absolute

adj.

  • 1. (of a time) representing a specific point in time.
  • 2. (of a pathname) representing a specific position in a directory hierarchy. See relative.

access

n., v.t.

accessibility

n.

accessible

adj.

accessor

n.

active

adj.

actual adjustability

n.

actual argument

n., Trad.

actual array element type

n.

actual complex part type

n.

actual parameter

n., Trad.

actually adjustable

adj.

adjustability

adjustable

after method

n.

alist

alphabetic

n., adj.

alphanumeric

adj.

ampersand

n.

anonymous

adj.

apparently uninterned

adj.

applicable

adj.

applicable handler

n.

applicable method

n.

applicable restart

n.

\issue{CONDITION-RESTARTS:PERMIT-ASSOCIATION}

apply

v.t.

  • (a function to a list) to call the function with arguments that are the elements of the list. "Applying the function + to a list of integers returns the sum of the elements of that list."

\issue{CONDITION-RESTARTS:PERMIT-ASSOCIATION}

argument

n.

\issue{FORMAT-STRING-ARGUMENTS:SPECIFY}

argument evaluation order

n.

  • the order in which arguments are evaluated in a function call. "The argument evaluation order for Common Lisp is left to right." \Seesection\Evaluation.

argument precedence order

n.

around method

n.

array

n.

  • an object of type array, which serves as a container for other objects arranged in a Cartesian coordinate system.

array element type

n. (of an array)

array total size

n.

assign

v.t.

association list

n.

asterisk

n.

  • the standard character that is variously called "asterisk" or "star" (*). \Seefigure\StdCharsThree.

at-sign

n.

  • the standard character that is variously called "commercial at" or "at sign" (@). \Seefigure\StdCharsThree.

atom

n.

  • any object that is not a cons. "A vector is an atom."

atomic

adj.

  • being an atom. "The number 3, the symbol foo, and nil are atomic."

atomic type specifier

n.

attribute

n.

aux variable

n.

auxiliary method

n.

B

backquote

n.

  • the standard character that is variously called "grave accent" or "backquote" (`). \Seefigure\StdCharsThree.

backslash

n.

  • the standard character that is variously called "reverse solidus" or "backslash" (\). \Seefigure\StdCharsThree.

base character

n.

\issue{CHARACTER-VS-CHAR:LESS-INCONSISTENT-SHORT} of type base-char.

base string

before method

n.

bidirectional

adj.

binary

adj.

bind

v.t. (a variable)

binding

n.

  • an association between a name and that which the name denotes. "A lexical binding is a lexical association between a name and its value." When the term binding is qualified by the name of a namespace, such as "variable" or "function," it restricts the binding to the indicated namespace, as in: "let establishes variable bindings." or "let establishes bindings of variables."

bit

n.

bit array

n.

bit vector

n.

bit-wise logical operation specifier

n.

block

n.

block tag

n.

boa lambda list

n.

body parameter

n.

boolean

n.

boolean equivalent

n.

bound

adj., v.t.

  • 1. adj. having an associated denotation in a binding. "The variables named by a let are bound within its body." See unbound.
  • 2. adj. having a local binding which shadows2 another. "The variable *print-escape* is bound while in the princ function."
  • 3. v.t. the past tense of bind.

bound declaration

n.

bounded

adj.

  • (of a sequence S, by an ordered pair of bounding indices istart and iend) restricted to a subrange of the elements of S that includes each element beginning with (and including) the one indexed by istart and continuing up to (but not including) the one indexed by iend.

bounding index

n.

  • (of a sequence with length n) either of a conceptual pair of integers, istart and iend, respectively called the "lower bounding index" and "upper bounding index", such that 0 <= istart <= iend <= n, and which therefore delimit a subrange of the sequence bounded by istart and iend.

bounding index designator

n. (for a sequence)

break loop

n.

broadcast stream

built-in class

built-in type

n.

  • one of the types in \figref\StandardizedAtomicTypeSpecs.

byte

n.

  • 1. adjacent bits within an integer. (The specific number of bits can vary from point to point in the program; see function byte.)
  • 2. an integer in a specified range. (The specific range can vary from point to point in the program; see functions open and write-byte.)

byte specifier

n.

C

cadr

n.

call

v.t., n.

captured initialization form

n.

car

n.

case

n. (of a character)

case sensitivity mode

n.

  • one of the symbols :upcase, :downcase, :preserve, or :invert.

catch

n.

catch tag

n.

cddr

n. (of an object)

cdr

n.

  • 1. a. (of a cons) the component of a cons corresponding to the second argument to cons; the other component is the car. "The function rplacd modifies the cdr of a cons." b. (of a list L1) either the list L2 that contains the elements of L1 that follow after the first, or else nil if L1 is the empty list.
  • 2. the object that is held in the cdr1. "The function cdr returns the cdr of a cons."

cell

n., Trad. (of an object)

character

n., adj.

character code

n.

character designator

n.

\issue{CHARACTER-PROPOSAL:2-1-1}

circular

adj.

circular list

n.

  • a chain of conses that has no termination because some cons in the chain is the cdr of a later cons.

class

n.

class designator

n.

class precedence list

n.

close

v.t.

  • (a stream) to terminate usage of the stream as a source or sink of data, permitting the implementation to reclaim its internal data structures, and to free any external resources which might have been locked by the stream when it was opened.

closed

adj.

closure

coalesce

v.t.

code

n.

coerce

v.t.

  • (an object to a type) to produce an object from the given object, without modifying that object, by following some set of coercion rules that must be specifically stated for any context in which this term is used. The resulting object is necessarily of the indicated type, except when that type is a subtype of complex; in that case, if a complex rational with an imaginary part of zero would result, the result is a rational rather than a complex - \seesection\RuleOfCanonRepForComplexRationals.

colon

n.

comma

n.

compilation

n.

compilation environment

n.

compilation unit

n.

compile

v.t.

compile time

n.

compile-time definition

n.

compiled code

n.

compiled file

n.

compiled function

n.

\issue{COMPILED-FUNCTION-REQUIREMENTS:TIGHTEN}

compiler

n.

compiler macro

n.

  • an auxiliary macro definition for a globally defined function or macro which might or might not be called by any given conforming implementation and which must preserve the semantics of the globally defined function or macro but which might perform some additional optimizations. (Unlike a macro, a compiler macro does not extend the syntax of Common Lisp; rather, it provides an alternate implementation strategy for some existing syntax or functionality.)

\issue{DEFINE-COMPILER-MACRO:X3J13-NOV89}

compiler macro expansion

n.

compiler macro form

n.

compiler macro function

n.

complex

n.

complex float

n.

complex part type

n. (of a complex)

complex rational

n.

complex single float

n.

composite stream

n.

component

n.

Editor Note: This glossary entry is not a part of the original specification and was added based on context.

compound form

compound type specifier

n.

concatenated stream

condition

n.

condition designator

n.

condition handler

n.

condition reporter

n.

conditional newline

n.

conformance

n.

  • a state achieved by proper and complete adherence to the requirements of this specification. \Seesection\Conformance.

conforming code

n.

conforming implementation

n.

conforming processor

conforming program

n.

  • a program, used to emphasize the fact that the program depends for its correctness only upon documented aspects of Common Lisp, and can therefore be expected to run correctly in any conforming implementation.

congruent

n.

  • conforming to the rules of lambda list congruency, as detailed in \secref\GFMethodLambdaListCongruency.

cons

n., v.

  • 1. n. a compound data object having two components called the car and the cdr.
  • 2. v. to create such an object.
  • 3. v. Idiom. to create any object, or to allocate storage.

constant

constant form

n.

constant object

n.

  • an object that is constrained (e.g. by its context in a program or by the source from which it was obtained) to be immutable. "A literal object that has been processed by compile-file is a constant object."

constant variable

n.

constituent

n., adj.

constituent trait

n. (of a character)

constructed stream

n.

contagion

n.

continuable

n. (of an error)

control form

n.

  • 1. a form that establishes one or more places to which control can be transferred.
  • 2. a form that transfers control.

copy

n.

\issue{DEFSTRUCT-COPIER:ARGUMENT-TYPE}

correctable

adj. (of an error)

\issue{CONDITION-RESTARTS:PERMIT-ASSOCIATION}

current input base

n. (in a dynamic environment)

current logical block

n.

current output base

n. (in a dynamic environment)

current package

n. (in a dynamic environment)

current pprint dispatch table

n. (in a dynamic environment)

current random state

n. (in a dynamic environment)

current readtable

n. (in a dynamic environment)

D

data type

n., Trad.

debug I/O

n.

debugger

n.

declaration

declaration identifier

n.

\issue{SYNTACTIC-ENVIRONMENT-ACCESS:RETRACTED-MAR91}

declaration specifier

n.

declare

decline

v. (of a handler)

  • to return normally without having handled the condition being signaled, permitting the signaling process to continue as if the handler had not been present.

decoded time

n.

  • absolute time, represented as an ordered series of nine objects which, taken together, form a description of a point in calendar time, accurate to the nearest second (except that leap seconds are ignored). \Seesection\DecodedTime.

default method

n.

defaulted initialization argument list

n.

  • a list of alternating initialization argument names and values in which unsupplied initialization arguments are defaulted, used in the protocol for initializing and reinitializing instances of classes.

define-method-combination arguments lambda list

n.

define-modify-macro lambda list

n.

defined name

n.

  • a symbol the meaning of which is defined by Common Lisp.

defining form

n.

defsetf lambda list

n.

  • a lambda list that is like an ordinary lambda list except that it does not permit &body and that it permits use of &body. \Seesection\DefsetfLambdaLists.

deftype lambda list

n.

\issue{DEFTYPE-KEY:ALLOW} \issue{DEFTYPE-DESTRUCTURING:YES}

denormalized

adj., ANSI, IEEE (of a float)

  • conforming to the description of "denormalized" as described by {\IEEEFloatingPoint}. For example, in an implementation where the minimum possible exponent was -7 but where 0.001 was a valid mantissa, the number 1.0e-10 might be representable as 0.001e-7 internally even if the normalized representation would call for it to be represented instead as 1.0e-10 or 0.1e-9. By their nature, denormalized floats generally have less precision than normalized floats.

derived type

n.

derived type specifier

designator

n.

  • an object that denotes another object. In the dictionary entry for an operator if a parameter is described as a designator for a type, the description of the operator is written in a way that assumes that appropriate coercion to that type has already occurred; that is, that the parameter is already of the denoted type. For more detailed information, \seesection\Designators.

destructive

adj. (of an operator)

destructuring lambda list

n.

different

adj.

  • not the same "The strings "FOO" and "foo" are different under equal but not under equalp."

digit

n. (in a radix)

  • a character that is among the possible digits (0 to 9, A to Z, and a to z) and that is defined to have an associated numeric weight as a digit in that radix. \Seesection\Digits.

dimension

n.

direct instance

n. (of a class C)

  • an object whose class is C itself, rather than some subclass of C. "The function make-instance always returns a direct instance of the class which is (or is named by) its first argument."

direct subclass

n. (of a class C1)

direct superclass

n. (of a class C1)

  • a class C2 which was explicitly designated as a superclass of C1 in the definition of C1.

disestablish

v.t.

disjoint

n. (of types)

dispatching macro character

n.

displaced array

n.

  • an array which has no storage of its own, but which is instead indirected to the storage of another array, called its target, at a specified offset, in such a way that any attempt to access the displaced array implicitly references the target array.

distinct

adj.

documentation string

n. (in a defining form)

  • a literal string which because of the context in which it appears (rather than because of some intrinsically observable aspect of the string) is taken as documentation. In some cases, the documentation string is saved in such a way that it can later be obtained by supplying either an object, or by supplying a name and a "kind" to the function documentation. "The body of code in a defmacro form can be preceded by a documentation string of kind function."

dot

n.

  • the standard character that is variously called "full stop," "period," or "dot" (.). \Seefigure\StdCharsThree.

dotted list

n.

dotted pair

n.

double float

double-quote

n.

  • the standard character that is variously called "quotation mark" or "double quote" ("). \Seefigure\StdCharsThree.

dynamic binding

dynamic environment

n.

dynamic extent

n.

dynamic scope

dynamic variable

n.

E

echo stream

effective method

n.

element

n.

element type

n.

em

n., Trad.

  • a context-dependent unit of measure commonly used in typesetting, equal to the displayed width of of a letter "M" in the current font. (The letter "M" is traditionally chosen because it is typically represented by the widest glyph in the font, and other characters' widths are typically fractions of an em. In implementations providing non-Roman characters with wider characters than "M," it is permissible for another character to be the implementation-defined reference character for this measure, and for "M" to be only a fraction of an em wide.) In a fixed width font, a line with n characters is n em wide; in a variable width font, n em is the expected upper bound on the width of such a line.

empty list

n.

empty type

n.

end of file

n.

environment

n.

environment object

n.

environment parameter

n.

error

n.

  • 1. (only in the phrase "is an error") a situation in which the semantics of a program are not specified, and in which the consequences are undefined.
  • 2. a condition which represents an error situation. \Seesection\ErrorTerms.
  • 3. an object of type error.

error output

n.

escape

n., adj.

establish

v.t.

evaluate

v.t. (a form or an implicit progn)

evaluation

n.

  • a model whereby forms are executed, returning zero or more values. Such execution might be implemented directly in one step by an interpreter or in two steps by first compiling the form and then executing the compiled code; this choice is dependent both on context and the nature of the implementation, but in any case is not in general detectable by any program. The evaluation model is designed in such a way that a conforming implementation might legitimately have only a compiler and no interpreter, or vice versa. \Seesection\EvaluationModel.

evaluation environment

n.

execute

v.t. Trad. (code)

  • to perform the imperative actions represented by the code.

execution time

n.

exhaustive partition

n. (of a type)

exhaustive union

n. (of a type)

exit point

n.

explicit return

n.

explicit use

n. (of a variable V in a form F)

  • a reference to V that is directly apparent in the normal semantics of F; i.e. that does not expose any undocumented details of the macro expansion of the form itself. References to V exposed by expanding subforms of F are, however, considered to be explicit uses of V.

exponent marker

n.

  • a character that is used in the textual notation for a float to separate the mantissa from the exponent. The characters defined as exponent markers in the standard readtable are shown in the below table. For more information, \seesection\CharacterSyntax. "The exponent marker `d' in `3.0d7' indicates that this number is to be represented as a double float."
Marker Meaning
D or d double-float
E or e float (see *read-default-float-format*)
F or f single-float
L or l long-float
S or s short-float

export

v.t. (a symbol in a package)

exported

adj. (of a symbol in a package)

expressed adjustability

n. (of an array)

expressed array element type

n. (of an array)

expressed complex part type

n. (of a complex)

expression

n.

  • 1. an object, often used to emphasize the use of the object to encode or represent information in a specialized format, such as program text. "The second expression in a let form is a list of bindings."
  • 2. the textual notation used to notate an object in a source file. "The expression 'sample is equivalent to (quote sample)."

expressly adjustable

adj. (of an array)

extended character

n. a character of type extended-char: a character that is not a base character. \issue{CHARACTER-VS-CHAR:LESS-INCONSISTENT-SHORT}

extended function designator

n.

extended lambda list

n.

extension

n.

  • a facility in an implementation of Common Lisp that is not specified by this standard.

extent

n.

external file format

n.

external file format designator

n.

external symbol

n. (of a package)

externalizable object

n.

F

false

n.

fbound

adj. (of a function name)

\issue{SETF-FUNCTIONS-AGAIN:MINIMAL-CHANGES}

feature

n.

  • 1. an aspect or attribute of Common Lisp, of the implementation, or of the environment.
  • 2. a symbol that names a feature1. \Seesection\Features. "The :ansi-cl feature is present in all conforming implementations."

feature expression

n.

features list

n.

file

n.

file compiler

n.

file position

n. (in a stream)

file position designator

n. (in a stream)

file stream

n.

file system

n.

  • a facility which permits aggregations of data to be stored in named files on some medium that is external to the Lisp image and that therefore persists from session to session.

filename

n.

\issue{PATHNAME-HOST-PARSING:RECOGNIZE-LOGICAL-HOST-NAMES}

fill pointer

n. (of a vector)

finite

adj. (of a type)

  • having a finite number of elements. "The type specifier (integer 0 5) denotes a finite type, but the type specifiers integer and (integer 0) do not."

fixnum

n.

float

n.

for-value

adj. (of a reference to a binding)

\issue{IGNORE-USE-TERMINOLOGY:VALUE-ONLY}

form

n.

formal argument

n., Trad.

formal parameter

n., Trad.

format

v.t. (a format control and format arguments)

\issue{FORMAT-STRING-ARGUMENTS:SPECIFY}

format argument

n.

\issue{FORMAT-STRING-ARGUMENTS:SPECIFY}

format control

n.

format directive

n.

  • 1. a sequence of characters in a format string which is introduced by a tilde, and which is specially interpreted by code which processes format strings to mean that some special operation should be performed, possibly involving data supplied by the format arguments that accompanied the format string. See format. "In "~D base 10 = ~8R", the character sequences "~D" and "~8R" are format directives."
  • 2. the conceptual category of all format directives1 which use the same dispatch character. "Both "~3d" and "~3,'0D" are valid uses of the "~D" format directive."

format string

n.

free declaration

n.

fresh

adj.

freshline

n.

funbound

n. (of a function name)

function

n.

function block name

n. (of a function name)

function cell

n., Trad. (of a symbol)

function designator

n.

function form

n.

function name

n.

functional evaluation

n.

functional value

n.

further compilation

n.

G

general

adj. (of an array)

generalized boolean

n.

generalized instance

n. (of a class)

  • an object the class of which is either that class itself, or some subclass of that class. (Because of the correspondence between types and classes, the term "generalized instance of X" implies "object of type X" and in cases where X is a class (or class name) the reverse is also true. The former terminology emphasizes the view of X as a class while the latter emphasizes the view of X as a type specifier.)

generalized reference

n.

  • a reference to a location storing an object as if to a variable. (Such a reference can be either to read or write the location.) \Seesection\GeneralizedReference. See also place.

generalized synonym stream

n. (with a synonym stream symbol)

generic function

n.

generic function lambda list

n.

gensym

n. Trad.

global declaration

n.

global environment

n.

global variable

glyph

n.

  • a visual representation. "Graphic characters have associated glyphs."

go

v.

go point

n.

go tag

n.

graphic

adj. (of a character)

H

handle

v. (of a condition being signaled)

  • to perform a non-local transfer of control, terminating the ongoing signaling of the condition.

handler

hash table

n.

home package

n. (of a symbol)

I

I/O customization variable

identical

adj.

identifier

n.

  • 1. a symbol used to identify or to distinguish names.
  • 2. a string used the same way.

immutable

adj.

  • not subject to change, either because no operator is provided which is capable of effecting such change or because some constraint exists which prohibits the use of an operator that might otherwise be capable of effecting such a change. Except as explicitly indicated otherwise, implementations are not required to detect attempts to modify immutable objects or cells; the consequences of attempting to make such modification are undefined. "Numbers are immutable."

implementation

n.

  • a system, mechanism, or body of code that implements the semantics of Common Lisp.

implementation limit

n.

implementation-defined

adj.

implementation-dependent

adj.

  • describing a behavior or aspect of Common Lisp which has been deliberately left unspecified, that might be defined in some conforming implementations but not in others, and whose details may differ between implementations. A conforming implementation is encouraged (but not required) to document its treatment of each item in this specification which is marked implementation-dependent, although in some cases such documentation might simply identify the item as "undefined."

implementation-independent

adj. used to identify or emphasize a behavior or aspect of Common Lisp which does not vary between conforming implementations.

implicit block

n.

implicit compilation

n.

implicit progn

n.

  • an ordered set of adjacent forms appearing in another form, and defined by their context in that form to be executed as if within a progn.

implicit tagbody

n.

  • an ordered set of adjacent forms and/or tags appearing in another form, and defined by their context in that form to be executed as if within a tagbody.

import

v.t. (a symbol into a package)

improper list

n.

inaccessible

adj.

indefinite extent

n.

  • an extent whose duration is unlimited. "Most Common Lisp objects have indefinite extent."

indefinite scope

n.

  • scope that is unlimited.

indicator

indirect instance

n. (of a class C1)

inherit

v.t.

initial pprint dispatch table

n.

\issue{KMP-COMMENTS-ON-SANDRA-COMMENTS:X3J13-MAR-92}

initial readtable

n.

\issue{WITH-STANDARD-IO-SYNTAX-READTABLE:X3J13-MAR-91}

initialization argument list

n.

\issue{PLIST-DUPLICATES:ALLOW}

initialization form

n.

  • a form used to supply the initial value for a slot or variable. "The initialization form for a slot in a defclass form is introduced by the keyword :initform."

input

adj. (of a stream)

instance

integer

n.

interactive stream

n.

  • a stream on which it makes sense to perform interactive querying. \Seesection\InteractiveStreams.

intern

v.t.

  • 1. (a string in a package) to look up the string in the package, returning either a symbol with that name which was already accessible in the package or a newly created internal symbol of the package with that name.
  • 2. Idiom. generally, to observe a protocol whereby objects which are equivalent or have equivalent names under some predicate defined by the protocol are mapped to a single canonical object.

internal symbol

n. (of a package)

internal time

n.

internal time unit

n.

interned

adj. Trad.

interpreted function

n.

interpreted implementation

n.

  • an implementation that uses an execution strategy for interpreted functions that does not involve a one-time semantic analysis pre-pass, and instead uses "lazy" (and sometimes repetitious) semantic analysis of forms as they are encountered during execution.

interval designator

n. (of type T)

  • an ordered pair of objects that describe a subtype of T by delimiting an interval on the real number line. \Seesection\IntervalDesignators.

invalid

n., adj.

iteration form

n.

\issue{DOTIMES-IGNORE:X3J13-MAR91}

iteration variable

n.

K

key

n.

keyword

n.

keyword parameter

n.

\issue{PLIST-DUPLICATES:ALLOW}

keyword/value pair

n.

L

lambda combination

n., Trad.

lambda expression

n.

lambda form

n.

lambda list

n.

lambda list keyword

n.

lambda variable

n.

leaf

n.

leap seconds

n.

  • additional one-second intervals of time that are occasionally inserted into the true calendar by official timekeepers as a correction similar to "leap years." All Common Lisp time representations ignore leap seconds; every day is assumed to be exactly 86400 seconds long.

left-parenthesis

n.

  • the standard character "(", that is variously called "left parenthesis" or "open parenthesis" \Seefigure\StdCharsThree.

length

n. (of a sequence)

lexical binding

lexical closure

n.

lexical environment

n.

lexical scope

n.

  • scope that is limited to a spatial or textual region within the establishing form. "The names of parameters to a function normally are lexically scoped."

lexical variable

n.

Lisp image

n.

  • a running instantiation of a Common Lisp implementation. A Lisp image is characterized by a single address space in which any object can directly refer to any another in conformance with this specification, and by a single, common, global environment. (External operating systems sometimes call this a "core image," "fork," "incarnation," "job," or "process." Note however, that the issue of a "process" in such an operating system is technically orthogonal to the issue of a Lisp image being defined here. Depending on the operating system, a single "process" might have multiple Lisp images, and multiple "processes" might reside in a single Lisp image. Hence, it is the idea of a fully shared address space for direct reference among all objects which is the defining characteristic. Note, too, that two "processes" which have a communication area that permits the sharing of some but not all objects are considered to be distinct Lisp images.)

Lisp printer

n., Trad.

  • the procedure that prints the character representation of an object onto a stream. (This procedure is implemented by the function write.)

Lisp read-eval-print loop

n., Trad.

  • an endless loop that reads2 a form, evaluates it, and prints (i.e. writes2) the results. In many implementations, the default mode of interaction with Common Lisp during program development is through such a loop.

Lisp reader

n., Trad.

list

n.

list designator

n.

list structure

n. (of a list)

literal

adj. (of an object)

  • referenced directly in a program rather than being computed by the program; that is, appearing as data in a quote form, or, if the object is a self-evaluating object, appearing as unquoted data. "In the form (cons "one" '("two")), the expressions "one", ("two"), and "two" are literal objects."

load

v.t. (a file)

load time

n.

load time value

n.

loader

n.

  • a facility that is part of Lisp and that loads a file. See load.

local declaration

n.

  • an expression which may appear only in specially designated positions of certain forms, and which provides information about the code contained within the containing form; that is, a declare expression.

local precedence order

n. (of a class)

local slot

n. (of a class)

logical block

n.

logical host

n.

logical host designator

n.

logical pathname

long float

n.

loop keyword

n., Trad.

  • a symbol that is a specially recognized part of the syntax of an extended loop form. Such symbols are recognized by their name (using string=), not by their identity; as such, they may be in any package. A loop keyword is not a keyword.

lowercase

adj. (of a character)

M

macro

n.

macro character

n.

macro expansion

n.

  • 1. the process of translating a macro form into another form.
  • 2. the form resulting from this process.

macro form

n.

macro function

n.

macro lambda list

n.

macro name

n.

macroexpand hook

n.

mapping

n.

  • 1. a type of iteration in which a function is successively applied to objects taken from corresponding entries in collections such as sequences or hash tables.
  • 2. Math. a relation between two sets in which each element of the first set (the "domain") is assigned one element of the second set (the "range").

metaclass

n.

Metaobject Protocol

n.

  • one of many possible descriptions of how a conforming implementation might implement various aspects of the Common Lisp Object System. This description is beyond the scope of this document, and no conforming implementation is required to adhere to it except as noted explicitly in this specification. Nevertheless, its existence helps to establish normative practice, and implementors with no reason to diverge from it are encouraged to consider making their implementation adhere to it where possible. It is described in detail in the book The Art Of Metaobject Protocol by Gregor Kiczales.

method

n.

method combination

n.

method-defining form

n.

method-defining operator

n.

minimal compilation

n.

  • actions the compiler must take at compile time. \Seesection\CompilationSemantics.

modified lambda list

n.

most recent

adj.

multiple escape

n., adj.

multiple values

n.

  • 1. more than one value. "The function truncate returns multiple values."
  • 2. a variable number of values, possibly including zero or one. "The function values returns multiple values."
  • 3. a fixed number of values other than one. "The macro multiple-value-bind is among the few operators in Common Lisp which can detect and manipulate multiple values."

N

name

n., v.t.

named constant

n.

namespace

n.

  • 1. bindings whose denotations are restricted to a particular kind. "The bindings of names to tags is the tag namespace."
  • 2. any mapping whose domain is a set of names. "A package defines a namespace."

namestring

n.

\issue{PATHNAME-HOST-PARSING:RECOGNIZE-LOGICAL-HOST-NAMES}

newline

n.

next method

n.

  • the next method to be invoked with respect to a given method for a particular set of arguments or argument classes. \Seesection\ApplyMethCombToSortedMethods.

nickname

n. (of a package)

  • one of possibly several names that can be used to refer to the package but that is not the primary name of the package.

nil

n.

non-atomic

adj.

  • being other than an atom; i.e. being a cons.

non-constant variable

n.

non-correctable

adj. (of an error)

non-empty

adj.

non-generic function

n.

non-graphic

adj. (of a character)

  • not graphic. \Seesection\GraphicChars.

non-list

n., adj.

non-local exit

n.

non-nil

n., adj.

non-null lexical environment

n.

non-simple

adj.

non-terminating

adj. (of a macro character)

  • being such that it is treated as a constituent character when it appears in the middle of an extended token. \Seesection\ReaderAlgorithm.

non-top-level form

n.

normal return

n.

  • the natural transfer of control and values which occurs after the complete execution of a form.

normalized

adj., ANSI, IEEE (of a float)

  • conforming to the description of "normalized" as described by {\IEEEFloatingPoint}. See denormalized.

null

adj., n.

  • 1. adj. a. (of a list) having no elements: empty. See empty list. b. (of a string) having a length of zero. (It is common, both within this document and in observed spoken behavior, to refer to an empty string by an apparent definite reference, as in "the null string" even though no attempt is made to intern2 null strings. The phrase "a null string" is technically more correct, but is generally considered awkward by most Lisp programmers. As such, the phrase "the null string" should be treated as an indefinite reference in all cases except for anaphoric references.) c. (of an implementation-defined attribute of a character) An object to which the value of that attribute defaults if no specific value was requested.
  • 2. n. an object of type null (the only such object being nil).

null lexical environment

n.

number

n.

numeric

adj. (of a character)

O

object

n.

  • 1. any Lisp datum. "The function cons creates an object which refers to two other objects."
  • 2. (immediately following the name of a type) an object which is of that type, used to emphasize that the object is not just a name for an object of that type but really an element of the type in cases where objects of that type (such as function or class) are commonly referred to by name. "The function symbol-function takes a function name and returns a function object."

object-traversing

adj.

open

adj., v.t. (a file)

operator

n.

optimize quality

n.

  • one of several aspects of a program that might be optimizable by certain compilers. Since optimizing one such quality might conflict with optimizing another, relative priorities for qualities can be established in an optimize declaration. The standardized optimize qualities are compilation-speed (speed of the compilation process), debug (ease of debugging), safety (run-time error checking), space (both code size and run-time space), and speed (of the object code). implementations may define additional optimize qualities.

\issue{OPTIMIZE-DEBUG-INFO:NEW-QUALITY}

optional parameter

n.

ordinary function

n.

ordinary lambda list

n.

otherwise inaccessible part

n. (of an object, O1)

output

adj. (of a stream)

P

package

n.

package cell

n., Trad. (of a symbol)

package designator

n.

package marker

n.

  • a character which is used in the textual notation for a symbol to separate the package name from the symbol name, and which is colon in the standard readtable. \Seesection\CharacterSyntax.

package prefix

n.

package registry

n.

pairwise

adv. (of an adjective on a set)

  • applying individually to all possible pairings of elements of the set. "The types A, B, and C are pairwise disjoint if A and B are disjoint, B and C are disjoint, and A and C are disjoint."

parallel

adj., Trad. (of binding or assignment)

parameter

n.

parameter specializer

n.

parameter specializer name

n.

\issue{CLASS-OBJECT-SPECIALIZER:AFFIRM}

pathname

n.

  • an object of type pathname, which is a structured representation of the name of a file. A pathname has six components: a "host," a "device," a "directory," a "name," a "type," and a "version."

pathname designator

n.

\issue{PATHNAME-LOGICAL:ADD} \issue{PATHNAME-HOST-PARSING:RECOGNIZE-LOGICAL-HOST-NAMES}

physical pathname

n. a pathname that is not a logical pathname.

place

n.

plist

portable

adj. (of code)

potential copy

n. (of an object O1 subject to constriants)

  • an object O2 that if the specified constraints are satisfied by O1 without any modification might or might not be identical to O1, or else that must be a fresh object that resembles a copy of O1 except that it has been modified as necessary to satisfy the constraints.

potential number

n.

pprint dispatch table

n.

predicate

n.

Editor Note: This definition is imprecise, as every value in Common Lisp is a generalized boolean. The intent of a predicate is to return a truth value while not having any side effects. To quote Common Lisp the Language 2: "A predicate is a function that tests for some condition involving its arguments and returns nil if the condition is false, or some non-nil value if the condition is true."

present

n.

pretty print

v.t. (an object)

pretty printer

n.

  • the procedure that prints the character representation of an object onto a stream when the value of *print-pretty* is true, and that uses layout techniques (e.g. indentation) that tend to highlight the structure of the object in a way that makes it easier for human readers to parse visually. See *print-pprint-dispatch* and \secref\PPrinter.

pretty printing stream

n.

  • a stream that does pretty printing. Such streams are created by the macro pprint-logical-block as a link between the output stream and the logical block.

primary method

n.

primary value

n. (of values resulting from the evaluation of a form)

  • the first value, if any, or else nil if there are no values. "The primary value returned by truncate is an integer quotient, truncated toward zero."

principal

adj. (of a value returned by a Common Lisp function that implements a mathematically irrational or transcendental function defined in the complex domain)

  • of possibly many (sometimes an infinite number of) correct values for the mathematical function, being the particular value which the corresponding Common Lisp function has been defined to return.

n., Trad. (usually of a symbol)

printer control variable

n.

printer escaping

n.

\issue{PRINT-READABLY-BEHAVIOR:CLARIFY}

printing

adj. (of a character)

process

v.t. (a form by the compiler)

processor

n., ANSI

proclaim

v.t. (a proclamation)

proclamation

prog tag

n., Trad.

program

n., Trad.

programmer

n.

  • an active entity, typically a human, that writes a program, and that might or might not also be a user of the program.

programmer code

n.

proper list

n.

proper name

n. (of a class)

proper sequence

n.

proper subtype

n. (of a type)

property

n. (of a property list)

property indicator

n. (of a property list)

property list

n.

\issue{PLIST-DUPLICATES:ALLOW}

property value

n. (of a property indicator on a property list) the object associated with the property indicator on the property list. \issue{PLIST-DUPLICATES:ALLOW}

purport to conform

v.

  • make a good-faith claim of conformance. This term expresses intention to conform, regardless of whether the goal of that intention is realized in practice. For example, language implementations have been known to have bugs, and while an implementation of this specification with bugs might not be a conforming implementation, it can still purport to conform. This is an important distinction in certain specific cases; e.g. See *features*.

Q

qualified method

n.

qualifier

n. (of a method for a generic function)

query I/O

n.

quoted object

n.

R

radix

n.

  • an integer between 2 and 36, inclusive, which can be used to designate a base with respect to which certain kinds of numeric input or output are performed. (There are n valid digit characters for any given radix n, and those digits are the first n digits in the sequence 0, 1, …, 9, A, B, …, Z, which have the weights 0, 1, …, 9, 10, 11, …, 35, respectively. Case is not significant in parsing numbers of radix greater than 10, so "9b8a" and "9B8A" denote the same radix 16 number.)

random state

rank

n.

ratio

n.

ratio marker

n.

  • a character which is used in the textual notation for a ratio to separate the numerator from the denominator, and which is slash in the standard readtable. \Seesection\CharacterSyntax.

rational

n.

read

v.t.

\issue{IGNORE-USE-TERMINOLOGY:VALUE-ONLY}

readably

adv. (of a manner of printing an object O1)

reader

n.

reader macro

n.

reader macro function

readtable

n.

readtable case

n.

readtable designator

n.

recognizable subtype

n. (of a type)

recursion

n. Math.

reference

n., v.t.

registered package

n.

relative

adj.

  • 1. (of a time) representing an offset from an absolute time in the units appropriate to that time. For example, a relative internal time is the difference between two absolute internal times, and is measured in internal time units.
  • 2. (of a pathname) representing a position in a directory hierarchy by motion from a position other than the root, which might therefore vary. "The notation #P"../foo.text" denotes a relative pathname if the host file system is Unix." See absolute.

repertoire

n., ISO

report

n. (of a condition)

report message

n.

required parameter

n.

rest list

n. (of a function having a rest parameter)

rest parameter

n.

restart

n.

restart designator

n.

restart function

n.

return

v.t. (of values)

return value

n., Trad.

right-parenthesis

n.

  • the standard character ")", that is variously called "right parenthesis" or "close parenthesis" \Seefigure\StdCharsThree.

run time

run-time compiler

n.

run-time definition

n.

run-time environment

n.

S

safe

adj.

safe call

n.

same

adj.

  • 1. (of objects under a specified predicate) indistinguishable by that predicate. "The symbol car, the string "car", and the string "CAR" are the same under string-equal".
  • 2. (of objects if no predicate is implied by context) indistinguishable by eql. Note that eq might be capable of distinguishing some numbers and characters which eql cannot distinguish, but the nature of such, if any, is implementation-dependent. Since eq is used only rarely in this specification, eql is the default predicate when none is mentioned explicitly. "The conses returned by two successive calls to cons are never the same."
  • 3. (of types) having the same set of elements; that is, each type is a subtype of the others. "The types specified by (integer 0 1), (unsigned-byte 1), and bit are the same."

satisfy the test

v. (of an object being considered by a sequence function)

scope

n.

script

n., ISO

secondary value

n. (of values resulting from the evaluation of a form)

  • the second value, if any, or else nil if there are fewer than two values. "The secondary value returned by truncate is a remainder."

section

n.

self-evaluating object

n.

semi-standard

adj. (of a language feature)

  • not required to be implemented by any conforming implementation, but nevertheless recommended as the canonical approach in situations where an implementation does plan to support such a feature. The presence of semi-standard aspects in the language is intended to lessen portability problems and reduce the risk of gratuitous divergence among implementations that might stand in the way of future standardization.

semicolon

n.

sequence

n.

  • 1. an ordered collection of elements
  • 2. a vector or a list.

sequence function

n.

sequential

adj. Trad. (of binding or assignment)

sequentially

adv.

serious condition

n.

session

n.

  • the conceptual aggregation of events in a Lisp image from the time it is started to the time it is terminated.

set

v.t. Trad. (any variable or a symbol that is the name of a dynamic variable)

setf expander

n.

\issue{SETF-METHOD-VS-SETF-METHOD:RENAME-OLD-TERMS}

setf expansion

n.

  • a set of five expressions1 that, taken together, describe how to store into a place and which subforms of the macro call associated with the place are evaluated. \Seesection\SetfExpansions.

\issue{SETF-METHOD-VS-SETF-METHOD:RENAME-OLD-TERMS}

setf function

n.

setf function name

n. (of a symbol S)

  • the list (setf S).

\issue{LISP-SYMBOL-REDEFINITION-AGAIN:MORE-FIXES}

shadow

v.t.

  • 1. to override the meaning of. "That binding of X shadows an outer one."
  • 2. to hide the presence of. "That macrolet of F shadows the outer flet of F."
  • 3. to replace. "That package shadows the symbol cl:car with its own symbol car."

shadowing symbol

shadowing symbols list

n. (of a package)

shared slot

n. (of a class)

sharpsign

n.

  • the standard character that is variously called "number sign," "sharp," or "sharp sign" (#). \Seefigure\StdCharsThree.

short float

n.

sign

n.

signal

v.

  • to announce, using a standard protocol, that a particular situation, represented by a condition, has been detected. \Seesection\ConditionSystemConcepts.

signature

n. (of a method)

similar

adj. (of two objects)

  • defined to be equivalent under the similarity relationship.

similarity

n.

  • a two-place conceptual equivalence predicate, which is independent of the Lisp image so that two objects in different Lisp images can be understood to be equivalent under this predicate. \Seesection\LiteralsInCompiledFiles.

simple

adj.

simple array

n.

simple bit array

n.

simple bit vector

simple condition

simple general vector

simple string

simple vector

n.

single escape

n., adj.

single float

single-quote

n.

  • the standard character that is variously called "apostrophe," "acute accent," "quote," or "single quote" ('). \Seefigure\StdCharsThree.

singleton

adj. (of a sequence)

  • having only one element. "(list 'hello) returns a singleton list."

situation

n.

slash

n.

  • the standard character that is variously called "solidus" or "slash" (/). \Seefigure\StdCharsThree.

slot

n.

slot specifier

n.

  • a representation of a slot that includes the name of the slot and zero or more slot options. A slot option pertains only to a single slot.

source code

n.

\issue{DEFINE-COMPILER-MACRO:X3J13-NOV89}

source file

n.

space

n.

special form

n.

special operator

n.

  • one of a fixed set of symbols, enumerated in \figref\CLSpecialOps, that may appear in the car of a form in order to identify the form as a special form.

special variable

n., Trad.

specialize

v.t. (a generic function)

specialized

adj.

specialized lambda list

n.

spreadable argument list designator

n.

  • a designator for a list of objects; that is, an object that denotes a list and that is a non-nil list L1 of length n, whose last element is a list L2 of length m (denoting a list L3 of length m+n-1 whose elements are L1i for i < n-1 followed by L2j for j < m). "The list (1 2 (3 4 5)) is a spreadable argument list designator for the list (1 2 3 4 5)."

stack allocate

v.t., Trad.

stack-allocated

adj., Trad.

standard character

n.

standard class

standard generic function

standard input

n.

standard method combination

n.

standard object

standard output

n.

standard pprint dispatch table

n.

\issue{KMP-COMMENTS-ON-SANDRA-COMMENTS:X3J13-MAR-92}

standard readtable

n.

\issue{WITH-STANDARD-IO-SYNTAX-READTABLE:X3J13-MAR-91}

standard syntax

n.

  • the syntax represented by the standard readtable and used as a reference syntax throughout this document. \Seesection\TheStandardSyntax.

standardized

adj. (of a name, object, or definition)

  • having been defined by Common Lisp. "All standardized variables that are required to hold bidirectional streams have "-io*" in their name."

startup environment

n.

step

v.t., n.

  • 1. v.t. (an iteration variable) to assign the variable a new value at the end of an iteration, in preparation for a new iteration.
  • 2. n. the code that identifies how the next value in an iteration is to be computed.
  • 3. v.t. (code) to specially execute the code, pausing at intervals to allow user confirmation or intervention, usually for debugging.

stream

n.

  • an object that can be used with an input or output function to identify an appropriate source or sink of characters or bytes for that operation.

stream associated with a file

n.

\issue{CLOSED-STREAM-FUNCTIONS:ALLOW-INQUIRY} \issue{PATHNAME-STREAM:FILES-OR-SYNONYM}

stream designator

n.

stream element type

n. (of a stream)

  • the type of data for which the stream is specialized.

stream variable

n.

stream variable designator

n.

string

n.

  • a specialized vector that is of type string, and whose elements are \oftypes{character}.

string designator

n.

\issue{STRING-COERCION:MAKE-CONSISTENT}

string equal

adj.

string stream

structure

structure class

structure name

n.

style warning

subclass

n.

subexpression

n. (of an expression)

subform

n. (of a form)

subrepertoire

n.

subtype

n.

  • a type whose membership is the same as or a proper subset of the membership of another type, called a supertype. (Every type is a subtype of itself.)

superclass

n.

supertype

n.

supplied-p parameter

n.

symbol

n.

symbol macro

n.

synonym stream

n.

synonym stream symbol

n. (of a synonym stream)

syntax type

n. (of a character)

  • one of several classifications, enumerated in \figref\PossibleSyntaxTypes, that are used for dispatch during parsing by the Lisp reader. \Seesection\CharacterSyntaxTypes.

system class

n.

system code

n.

  • code supplied by the implementation to implement this specification (e.g. the definition of mapcar) or generated automatically in support of this specification (e.g. during method combination); that is, code that is not programmer code.

T

t

n.

tag

n.

\issue{TAILP-NIL:T}

tail

n. (of a list)

  • an object that is the same as either some cons which makes up that list or the atom (if any) which terminates the list. "The empty list is a tail of every proper list."

target

n.

terminal I/O

n.

terminating

n. (of a macro character)

  • being such that, if it appears while parsing a token, it terminates that token. \Seesection\ReaderAlgorithm.

tertiary value

n. (of values resulting from the evaluation of a form)

  • the third value, if any, or else nil if there are fewer than three values.

throw

v.

tilde

n.

time

n.

time zone

n.

  • a rational multiple of 1/3600 between -24 (inclusive) and 24 (inclusive) that represents a time zone as a number of hours offset from Greenwich Mean Time. Time zone values increase with motion to the west, so Massachusetts, U.S.A. is in time zone 5, California, U.S.A. is time zone 8, and Moscow, Russia is time zone -3. (When "daylight savings time" is separately represented as an argument or return value, the time zone that accompanies it does not depend on whether daylight savings time is in effect.)

\issue{TIME-ZONE-NON-INTEGER:ALLOW}

token

n.

  • a textual representation for a number or a symbol. \Seesection\InterpOfTokens.

top level form

n.

trace output

n.

tree

n.

  • 1. a binary recursive data structure made up of conses and atoms: the conses are themselves also trees (sometimes called "subtrees" or "branches"), and the atoms are terminal nodes (sometimes called leaves). Typically, the leaves represent data while the branches establish some relationship among that data.
  • 2. in general, any recursive data structure that has some notion of "branches" and leaves.

tree structure

n. (of a tree1)

true

n.

truename

n.

two-way stream

n.

type

n.

  • 1. a set of objects, usually with common structure, behavior, or purpose. (Note that the expression "X is of type Sa" naturally implies that "X is of type Sb" if Sa is a subtype ofSb.)
  • 2. (immediately following the name of a type) a subtype of that type. "The type vector is an array type."

type declaration

n.

type equivalent

adj. (of two types X and Y)

type expand

v.

  • to fully expand a type specifier, removing any references to derived types. (Common Lisp provides no program interface to cause this to occur, but the semantics of Common Lisp are such that every implementation must be able to do this internally, and some situations involving type specifiers are most easily described in terms of a fully expanded type specifier.)

type specifier

n.

U

unbound

adj.

  • not having an associated denotation in a binding. See bound.

unbound variable

n.

undefined function

n.

unintern

v.t. (a symbol in a package)

uninterned

adj. (of a symbol)

universal time

n.

unqualified method

n.

unregistered package

n.

unsafe

adj. (of code)

  • not safe. (Note that, unless explicitly specified otherwise, if a particular kind of error checking is guaranteed only in a safe context, the same checking might or might not occur in that context if it were unsafe; describing a context as unsafe means that certain kinds of error checking are not reliably enabled but does not guarantee that error checking is definitely disabled.)

unsafe call

n.

  • a call that is not a safe call. For more detailed information, \seesection\SafeAndUnsafeCalls.

upgrade

v.t. (a declared type to an actual type)

upgraded array element type

n. (of a type)

upgraded complex part type

n. (of a type)

uppercase

adj. (of a character)

use

v.t. (a package P1)

use list

n. (of a package)

user

n.

  • an active entity, typically a human, that invokes or interacts with a program at run time, but that is not necessarily a programmer.

V

valid array dimension

n.

\issue{ARRAY-DIMENSION-LIMIT-IMPLICATIONS:ALL-FIXNUM}

valid array index

n. (of an array)

  • a fixnum suitable for use as one of possibly several indices needed to name an element of the array according to a multi-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system. Such a fixnum must be greater than or equal to zero, and must be less than the corresponding dimension1 of the array. (Unless otherwise explicitly specified, the phrase "a list of valid array indices" further implies that the length of the list must be the same as the rank of the array.) "For a 2 by 3 array, valid array indices for the first dimension are 0 and 1, and valid array indices for the second dimension are 0, 1 and 2."

\issue{ARRAY-DIMENSION-LIMIT-IMPLICATIONS:ALL-FIXNUM}

valid array row-major index

n. (of an array, which might have any number of dimensions2)

\issue{ARRAY-DIMENSION-LIMIT-IMPLICATIONS:ALL-FIXNUM}

valid fill pointer

n. (of an array)

\issue{ARRAY-DIMENSION-LIMIT-IMPLICATIONS:ALL-FIXNUM}

valid logical pathname host

n.

\issue{PATHNAME-UNSPECIFIC-COMPONENT:NEW-TOKEN}

valid pathname device

n.

valid pathname directory

n.

\issue{PATHNAME-SUBDIRECTORY-LIST:NEW-REPRESENTATION}

valid pathname host

valid pathname name

n.

valid pathname type

n.

valid pathname version

n.

  • a non-negative integer, or one of :wild, :newest, :unspecific, or nil.

The symbols :oldest, :previous, and :installed are semi-standard special version symbols.

valid physical pathname host

n.

  • any of a string, a list of strings, or the symbol :unspecific, that is recognized by the implementation as the name of a host.

valid sequence index

n. (of a sequence)

\issue{ARRAY-DIMENSION-LIMIT-IMPLICATIONS:ALL-FIXNUM}

value

n.

value cell

n. Trad. (of a symbol)

variable

n.

vector

n.

  • a one-dimensional array.

vertical-bar

n.

W

whitespace

n.

wild

adj.

  • 1. (of a namestring) using an implementation-defined syntax for naming files, which might "match" any of possibly several possible filenames, and which can therefore be used to refer to the aggregate of the files named by those filenames.
  • 2. (of a pathname) a structured representation of a name which might "match" any of possibly several pathnames, and which can therefore be used to refer to the aggregate of the files named by those pathnames. The set of wild pathnames includes, but is not restricted to, pathnames which have a component which is :wild, or which have a directory component which contains :wild or :wild-inferors. See wild-pathname-p.

write

v.t.

\issue{IGNORE-USE-TERMINOLOGY:VALUE-ONLY}

writer

n.

Y

yield

v.t. (values)