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Function MERGE


  • merge result-type sequence-1 sequence-2 predicate &key keyresult-sequence

Arguments and Values


Destructively merges sequence-1 with sequence-2 according to an order determined by the predicate. merge determines the relationship between two elements by giving keys extracted from the sequence elements to the predicate.

The first argument to the predicate function is an element of sequence-1 as returned by the key (if supplied); the second argument is an element of sequence-2 as returned by the key (if supplied). Predicate should return true if and only if its first argument is strictly less than the second (in some appropriate sense). If the first argument is greater than or equal to the second (in the appropriate sense), then predicate should return false. merge considers two elements x and y to be equal if (funcall predicate x y) and (funcall predicate y x) both yield false.

The argument to the key is the sequence element. Typically, the return value of the key becomes the argument to predicate. If key is not supplied or nil, the sequence element itself is used. The key may be executed more than once for each sequence element, and its side effects may occur in any order.

If key and predicate return, then the merging operation will terminate. The result of merging two sequences x and y is a new sequence of type result-type z, such that the length of z is the sum of the lengths of x and y, and z contains all the elements of x and y. If x1 and x2 are two elements of x, and x1 precedes x2 in x, then x1 precedes x2 in z, and similarly for elements of y. In short, z is an interleaving of x and y.

If x and y were correctly sorted according to the predicate, then z will also be correctly sorted. If x or y is not so sorted, then z will not be sorted, but will nevertheless be an interleaving of x and y.

The merging operation is guaranteed stable; if two or more elements are considered equal by the predicate, then the elements from sequence-1 will precede those from sequence-2 in the result.

sequence-1 and/or sequence-2 may be destroyed.

If the result-type is a subtype of list,the result will be a list.

If the result-type is a subtype of vector,then if the implementation can determine the element type specified for the result-type, the element type of the resulting array is the result of upgrading that element type; or, if the implementation can determine that the element type is unspecified (or *), the element type of the resulting array is t; otherwise, an error is signaled.


(defparameter *test1* (list 1 3 4 6 7)) *TEST1* (defparameter *test2* (list 2 5 8)) *TEST2* (merge 'list *test1* *test2* #'<)

(1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8)

(setf *test1* (copy-seq "BOY")) (setf *test2* (copy-seq "nosy")) (merge 'string *test1* *test2* #'char-lessp)


(setf *test1* (vector '(red . 1) '(blue . 4))) (setf *test2* (vector '(yellow . 2) '(green . 7))) (merge 'vector *test1* *test2* #'< :key #'cdr)

#((RED . 1) (YELLOW . 2) (BLUE . 4) (GREEN . 7))

(merge '(vector * 4) '(1 5) '(2 4 6) #'<)

Error: The length requested (5) does not match the type restriction in (VECTOR * 4).

Affected By


Exceptional Situations

An error must be signaled if the result-type is neither a recognizable subtype of list, nor a recognizable subtype of vector.

An error of type type-error should be signaled if result-type specifies the number of elements and the sum of the lengths of sequence-1 and sequence-2 is different from that number.

See Also